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Meanwhile, The English language, as the language of the now lower class, was considered a vulgar tongue. By about , England and France had split.

English changed a lot, because it was mostly being spoken instead of written for about years. The use of Old English came back, but with many French words added.

This language is called Middle English. Most of the words embedded in the English vocabulary are words of power, such as crown , castle , court , parliament , army , mansion , gown , beauty , banquet , art , poet , romance , duke , servant , peasant , traitor and governor. It was a massive sound change affecting the long vowels of English. Basically, the long vowels shifted upwards; that is, a vowel that used to be pronounced in one place in the mouth would be pronounced in a different place, higher up in the mouth.

The Great Vowel Shift occurred during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries. The most famous example of Middle English is Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales" , a collection of stories about a group of thirty people who travel as pilgrims to Canterbury, England. The portraits that he paints in his Tales give us an idea of what life was like in fourteenth century England.

Origins and basic characteristics

Modern English to the present : Modern English developed after William Caxton established his printing press at Westminster Abbey in Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press in Germany around , but Caxton set up England's first press. The Bible and some valuable manuscripts were printed.

The English Renaissance and the invention of the printing press

The invention of the printing press made books available to more people. The books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. By the time of Shakespeare's writings , the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English.

There were three big developments in the world at the beginning of Modern English period: the Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, and the British Colonialism.

A History of the English Language: Revised edition - Elly van Gelderen - Google книги

A History of the English Language. Authors view affiliations N. Front Matter Pages i-xv.

What is a History of English? Pages Background Survey. Before Alfred.

A short history of the English language

The First English Standard. In some measure, Because Internet offers a history of the web, an introduction to linguistics and a survey of the most fascinating research from her field, including a study that took advantage of geotags on social media to show how new slang words spread from place to place. Her opus is also a well-researched retort to grumpy grammarians who think technology is turning kids into lazy, inarticulate drivelers. McCulloch is a scholar , pundit and podcaster who frequently appears in the media to explain whatever That New Thing on the Internet means.

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