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Playing the Islamic card in these and other ways was an effective tool of both Protestant and Catholic pamphleteers in the 16th and 17th centuries. But as time went on and the level of familiarity with the actual teaching and practice of Islam grew in the West, the inherited models became harder to sustain. Malcolm gives a fascinating account of how traditional polemic against Islam acquired a new and subversive dimension in the course of the 17th century. But as confidence in claims to supernatural revelation weakened in the West, there was a gradual recognition that any claim to an authority based on revelation could be represented by a hostile observer in much the same way.

What was said about Muhammad could be said about Moses; and even if hardly anyone dared to suggest that the same might apply to Jesus, it could certainly be applied to Paul and other early Christian teachers. In other words, anti-Muslim polemic gradually turned in some quarters into a sort of universal acid to dissolve all traditional religious claims.

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Or, if it did not go quite that far, it could prompt some Christian or para-Christian radicals in the 17th century to suggest that Muhammad was in fact the ancestor of revisionist Christianity, opposed to the mystifications of Trinitarian theology, priestcraft and superstition.

Here is one of the many ironies that this book highlights. And Malcolm traces with great subtlety how something of this emerges also in the uses of Muslim-related tropes in political philosophy. In contrast to Western monarchies, the Ottoman sovereign was not embedded in a complex of subsidiary and interdependent jurisdictions or bound by feudal reciprocities.

The Ottoman Empire

This could be set out as a condemnation of Ottoman polity — and so as an oblique warning to Western monarchies not to go down this alien route — or as a demonstration that the logic of all monarchical government inexorably led to slavery. Agricultural and military reorganisation, rational systems of taxation and the reinforced legal protection of religious minorities all offered diverse interest groups in western Europe an enviable model. Of course, much of this rested on significantly distorted understandings of Ottoman polity, let alone Islamic law.

But it was a persistent myth well into the 18th century. According to T.

The same argument has been told by Dr. Burger and Dr. After Western Imperialist rule, this name was changed to reflect the name used today; the Indian Ocean. Soon, many Sufi missionaries translated classical Sufi literature from Arabic and Persian into Malay ; a tangible product of this is the Jawi script.

Coupled with the composing of original Islamic literature in Malay, this led the way to the transformation of Malay into an Islamic language. Through trade and commerce, Islam then spread to Borneo and Java. By the late 15th century, Islam had been introduced to the Philippines via the southern island of Mindanao. As Islam spread, societal changes developed from the individual conversions, and five centuries later it emerged as a dominant cultural and political power in the region. Three main Muslim political powers emerged.

The Aceh Sultanate was the most important, controlling much of the area between Southeast Asia and India from its centre in northern Sumatra. The Sultanate also attracted Sufi poets. The Sultanate of Demak on Java was the third power, where the emerging Muslim forces defeated the local Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century. Portuguese forces captured Malacca in under naval general Afonso de Albuquerque. The Sultanate's territory, although vastly diminished, remains intact to this day as the modern state of Brunei Darussalam.

These imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder and more efficient administration. The Seljuq Turks declined in the second half of the 13th century, after the Mongol invasion. Osman I afterwards led it in a series of battles with the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans were established in the Balkans and Anatolia by the time Bayezid I ascended to power in the same year, now at the helm of a growing empire.

This episode was characterized by the division of the Ottoman territory amongst Bayezid I's sons, who submitted to Timurid authority. When a number of Ottoman territories regained independent status, ruin for the Empire loomed. However, the empire recovered, as the youngest son of Bayezid I, Mehmed I , waged offensive campaigns against his ruling brothers, thereby reuniting Asia Minor and declaring himself sultan in Around this time the Ottoman naval fleet developed, such that they were able to challenge Venice , a naval power. They also attempted to reconquer the Balkans. A factor in this siege was the use of muskets and large cannons introduced by the Ottomans.

The Byzantine fortress succumbed in , after 54 days of siege. Without its capital the Byzantine Empire disintegrated.

Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires - World History - Khan Academy

In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia under the leadership of Shah Ismail I , defeating the ruling Turcoman federation Aq Qoyunlu also called the "White Sheep Turkomans" in The Ottoman sultan Selim I sought to repel Safavid expansion, challenging and defeating them at the Battle of Chaldiran in Selim I also deposed the ruling Mamluks in Egypt, absorbing their territories in Suleiman I also known as Suleiman the Magnificent , Selim I's successor, took advantage of the diversion of Safavid focus to the Uzbeks on the eastern frontier and recaptured Baghdad, which had fallen under Safavid control.

Despite this, Safavid power remained substantial, rivalling the Ottomans. While Suleiman I's rule — is often identified as the apex of Ottoman power, the empire continued to remain powerful and influential until a relative fall in its military strength in the second half of the eighteenth century. The Safavid dynasty rose to power in Tabriz in and later conquered the rest of Iran. They were of mixed ancestry, originally Kurdish , [] but during their rule intermarried with Turkomans , [] Georgians , [] Circassians , [] [] and Pontic Greeks. This resulted in the Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam.

Zaydis , the largest group amongst the Shia before the Safavid Dynasty were also forced to convert to the Twelver Shia. The Zaydis at that time used the Hanafi Fiqh, as did most Sunnis and there were good relations between them. Abu Hanifah and Zayd ibn Ali were also very good friends. The Safavids dynasty from Azarbaijan ruled from to , and which established Twelver Shi'a Islam as the region's official religion and united its provinces under a single sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity. Their origins go back to Firuz Shah Zarrinkolah , a local dignitary from the north.

During their rule, the Safavids recognized Twelver Shi'a Islam as the State religion, thus giving the region a separate identity from its Sunni neighbours. In , Tahmasp I acceded to the throne, initiating a revival of the arts. Carpetmaking became a major industry.

The tradition of Persian miniature painting in manuscripts reached its peak, until Tahmasp turned to strict religious observance in middle age, prohibiting the consumption of alcohol and hashish and removing casinos , taverns and brothels. Tahmasp's nephew Ibrahim Mirza continued to patronize a last flowering of the arts until he was murdered, after which many artists were recruited by the Mughal dynasty.

Both shrines received jewelry, fine manuscripts and Chinese porcelains. Abbas moved the capital to Isfahan , revived old ports, and established thriving trade with Europeans. Amongst Abbas's most visible cultural achievements was the construction of Naqsh-e Jahan Square "Design of the World".

The Safavid Dynasty was toppled in by the Hotaki dynasty , which ended their forceful conversion of Sunni areas to Shiaism. The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent, in ca. Red Fort was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly years, until Mughal Empire was a power that comprised almost all of South Asia , founded in It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty , with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia , claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan through his son Chagatai Khan and Timur , [] [] [] and with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; [] [] the first two Mughal emperors had both parents of Central Asian ancestry, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry.

The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi , the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , in the First Battle of Panipat During the reign of Humayun , the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri , who re-established the Grand Trunk Road across the northern Indian subcontinent, initiated the rupee currency system and developed much of the foundations of the effective administration of Mughal rule.

The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began in , with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. After the death of Aurangzeb , which marks the end of Medieval India and beginning of the European colonialism in India, internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal , the Nawab of Awadh , the Nizam of Hyderabad , the major economic and military power known as Kingdom of Mysore ruled by Tipu Sultan and other small states.

Ottoman Empire | Facts, History, & Map |

In , the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah , the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, and Delhi was sacked and looted , drastically accelerating their decline. By the midth century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal.

Precolonial reform and experimentation from 1683 to 1818

The Rocket artillery and the world's first iron-cased rockets, the Mysorean rockets , were used during the war and the Jihad based Fathul Mujahidin was compiled. During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II , had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned, and exiled to Rangoon.

Ibrahim Muteferrika , Rational basis for the Politics of Nations []. The modern age brought technological and organizational changes to Europe while the Islamic region continued the patterns of earlier centuries. The European powers, and especially Britain and France , globalized economically and colonized much of the region.

The Ottoman state to 1481: the age of expansion

By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had declined. He transformed Turkish culture to reflect European laws, adopted Arabic numerals , the Latin script , separated the religious establishment from the state, and emancipated woman—even giving them the right to vote in parallel with women's suffrage in the west. Following World War I, the vast majority of former Ottoman territory outside of Asia Minor was handed over to the victorious European powers as protectorates. During the war the Allies had promised the subject peoples independence in exchange for their assistance fighting the Turkish powers. To their dismay, they found that this system of "protectorates" was a smoke-screen for their continued subjugation by the British and the French.

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The struggles for independence from their Turkish overlords and the cooperation of partisan forces with the British were romanticized in the stories of British secret intelligence agent T. Lawrence —later known as "Lawrence of Arabia. Many Muslim countries sought to adopt European political organization and nationalism began to emerge in the Muslim world.

Countries like Egypt, Syria and Turkey organized their governments and sought to develop national pride among their citizens. Other places, like Iraq, were not as successful due to a lack of unity and an inability to resolve age-old prejudices between Muslim sects and against non-Muslims.