The importance of critical thinking for student use of the Internet. College Student Journal, 34 3 , — Cervetti, G. A tale of differences: Comparing the traditions, perspectives and educational goals of critical reading and critical literacy. Reading Online, 4 9.
Cook-Sather, A. Educational Researcher, 31 4. Duncan-Andrade, J. The art of critical pedagogy: Possibilities for moving from theory to practice in urban schools. New York: Lang. Fabos, B. Leu, J. Coiro, M. Lankshear Eds. Handbook of Research on New Literacies. Giroux, H. Literacy and the pedagogy of empowerment. Macedo Eds. Westport, CT: Heinemann.
- Literacy: Reading the Word and the World by Paulo Freire.
- Literacy: Reading the World and the Word, Paulo Freire, 2nd edition!
- Bryn: First Contact ~ Part One.
Critical pedagogy, the state, and cultural struggle. Kellner, D. Toward critical media literacy: Core concepts, debates, organizations, and policy. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 26 3 , Lankshear, C.
Critical literacies and new technologies. Lewison, M. Taking on critical literacy: The journey of newcomers and novices. Language Arts, 79 5 , Luke, A. The Social Construction of Literacy in the Classroom. Melbourne: Macmillan Australia.
Paulo Freire and Learning to Read the World
Further notes on the four resources model. Reading Online. Critical literacy in Australia: A matter of context and standpoint. Myers, J. Hypermedia authoring as critical literacy. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 44 6 , Constructing critical literacy practices through technology tools and inquiry. Pickerill, J.
Cyberprotest: Environmental activism online. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Since this reflection by its very nature should be critical, learners will begin to comprehend the relationship among many different discourses. In the final analysis, these discourses are interrelated. Productive discourse and discourse about or accompanying productive discourse always intersect at some level. The problem of understanding the culture in which education takes place cannot negate the presence and influence of economic production.
Reading the world always precedes reading the word, and reading the word implies continually reading the world. As I suggested earlier, this movement from the word to the world is always present; even the spoken word flows from our reading of the world. In a way, however, we can go further and say that reading the word is not preceded merely by reading the world, but by a certain form of writing it or rewriting it, that is, of transforming it by means of conscious, practical work. For me, this dynamic movement is central to the literacy process.
The word brick for example, might be inserted in a pictorial representation of a group of bricklayers constructing a house.
See a Problem?
Before giving a written form to the popular word, however, we customarily challenge the learners with a group of codified situations, so they will apprehend the word rather than mechanically memorize it. Decodifying or reading the situations pictured leads them to a critical perception of the meaning of culture by leading them to understand how human practice or work transforms the world.
Basically, the pictures of concrete situations enable the people to reflect on their former interpretation of the world before going on to read the word. This more critical reading of the prior, less critical reading of the world enables them to understand their indigence differently from the fatalistic way they sometimes view injustice. How can a country that considers itself a model of democracy tolerate an educational system that contributes to such a high level of illiteracy?
Literacy: Reading the World and the Word, Paulo Freire, 2nd edition
Freire : The first reaction to these data should be one of shock. How can this be possible? But this would still be a reaction at the affective level. Let us think a bit about this phenomenon. The first question might be, did this huge sector of the population, the illiterate or functionally illiterate, ever go to school? In Latin America you have a number of people who are illiterate because they were socially forbidden to go to school.
And you have another large population of illiterates who went to school. Further, we have to consider whether illiterates did go to school and whether they were untouched by the school to the extent that they remained illiterate apparently they were not touched, but, actually, they were touched , and whether they left school or they were left by the school.
I am inclined to think that this large population of illiterates in the United States went to school and then were expelled from school. How were they expelled?
Were they thrown out by decree because they did not learn how to read and write? I believe that the school did not operate in this overt a manner. This brings us to a point that is once again political and ideological in nature. And let us not forget the question of power, which is always associated with education. Our speculations should provoke those who are in the school systems to react to the following notion as absurd, nonrigorous, and purely ideological.
The notion is: this large number of people who do not read or write and who were expelled from school do not represent a failure of the schooling class; their expulsion reveals the triumph of the schooling class. Curriculum in the broadest sense involves not only the programmatic contents of the school system, but also the scheduling, discipline, and day-to-day tasks required from students in schools. In this curriculum, then, there is a quality that is hidden and that gradually incites rebelliousness on the part of children and adolescents.
Their defiance corresponds to the aggressive elements in the curriculum that work against the students and their interests.
In fact, students are reacting to a curriculum and other material conditions in schools that negate their histories, cultures, and day-to-day experiences. School values work counter to the interests of these students and tend to precipitate their expulsion from school. It is as if the system were put in place to ensure that these students pass through school and leave it as illiterates. This type of thinking typifies many well-intentioned educators who are not yet able to comprehend the internal mechanisms of the dominant ideology that so influences the school atmosphere.
Because of the rebelliousness of children and adolescents who leave school or who are truants and refuse to engage in the intellectual activity predetermined by the curriculum, these students end up refusing to comprehend the word not their own word, of course, but the word of the curriculum. They thus remain distant from the practice of reading.